Keyboard interfaces:
awesome, cvlc, display, ed, elinks, feh, firefox, gnome3, gv,
i3, less, lynx, mail, mplayer, mutt, openbox, pxboard, riot,
screen, vim, vlc, xboard, xine, xpdf, xterm, yasr, zee, zile

Browsers:   elinks, firefox, lynx
Editors:   ed, vim, zee, zile
Graphics:   cvlc, display, feh, gv, xpdf
Mail:   mail, mutt
Pagers:   less,
Terminal:   screen, xterm, yasr
Video:   mplayer, vlc, xine
Window managers:   awesome, gnome3, i3, openbox, screen


Window Manager Control : ( Mod4 is the key between Ctrl and Alt )
Mod4-Ctrl-r Restart awesome
Mod4-Shift-q Quit awesome
Mod4-r Run prompt
Mod4-x Run Lua code prompt
Mod4-Return Spawn terminal emulator
Mod4-w Open main menu
Clients :
Mod4-m Maximize client
Mod4-n Minimize client
Mod4-f Set client fullscreen
Mod4-t Set client on-top
Mod4-Shift-c Kill focused client
Mod4-Ctrl-n Restore client
Navigation :
Mod4-j Focus next client
Mod4-k Focus previous client
Mod4-u Focus first client
Button1 on tag name View tag
Mod4-Left View previous tag
Mod4-Right View next tag
Mod4 - 1-9 Switch to tag 1-9
Mod4-Ctrl-j Focus next screen
Mod4-Ctrl-k Focus previous screen
Mod4-Escape Focus previously selected tag set
Layout modification :
Mod4-Shift-j Switch client with next client
Mod4-Shift-k Switch client with previous client
Mod4-o Send client to next screen.
Mod4-h Decrease master width factor by 5%
Mod4-l Increase master width factor by 5%
Mod4-Shift-h Increase number of master windows by 1
Mod4-Shift-l Decrease number of master windows by 1.
Mod4-Ctrl-h Increase number of columns for non-master windows by 1
Mod4-Ctrl-l Decrease number of columns for non-master windows by 1
Mod4-Space Switch to next layout
Mod4-Shift-Space Switch to previous layout
Mod4-Ctrl-Space Toggle client floating status
Mod4-Ctrl-Return Swap focused client with master
Mod4-Ctrl - 1-9 Toggle tag view
Mod4-Shift - 1-9 Tag client with a tag
Mod4+Shift+Ctrl - 1-9 Toggle tag on client


See also vlc
Audio PlayBack :
M Mute On/Off
Ctrl-Up Volume Up
Ctrl-Down Volume Down
Ctrl-H Subtitle Delay Up
Ctrl-J Subtitle Delay Down
General Shortcut Keys :
T Show time Played/time left
Ctrl-Q Quit program
F Full screen mode
Ctrl-P Playlist
Ctrl-M Messages
Ctrl-I Stream and Media info
Ctrl-A Open capture device
Ctrl-W Streaming and Transport Wizard
Ctrl-X or Ctrl-Q Exit
Ctrl-V VLM control
Ctrl-G Extended GUI
Ctrl-B Bookmarks
Ctrl-S Preferences
F Fullscreen
+ Play faster
- Play slower
Video Playback Shortcut Keys :
Space Play/pause
S Stop
N Next entry in playlist
F Full screen
Ctrl-O Quick open file
Ctrl-O Open directory
Ctrl-D Open disk
Ctrl-N Open network stream
N Next item
P Previous item
Shift-Left Very Short Backwards jump
Shift-Right Very Short Forward jump
Alt-Left Backwards jump
Alt-Right Forward jump
Ctrl-Left Medium Backwards jump
Ctrl-Right Medium Forward jump
Alt-Ctrl-Left Long Backwards jump
Alt-Ctrl-Right Long Forward jump
Enter Active
DVD PlayBack :
Ctrl-M Go to DVD menu
Ctrl-P Selected previous DVD title
Ctrl-F Selected next DVD title
Ctrl-U Selected previous DVD chapter
Ctrl-D Selected Next DVD Chapter


The File Menu :
Ctrl-O Open an image from a file
Space Display the next image
Backspace Display the previous image
Ctrl-S Save the image to a file
Ctrl-P Print the image to a PostScript-capable printer
Ctrl-D Delete an image file
Ctrl-N create a New blank canvas
Ctrl-Q Quit
The Edit Menu :
Ctrl-Z Undo the last image transformation
Ctrl-R Redo the last image transformation
Ctrl-X Cut a region of the image
Ctrl-C Copy a region of the image
Ctrl-V Paste a region to the image
The View Menu :
< Half size
> Double size
% Re-size
Ctrl-A Apply these changes as the "original" version
@ Refresh
The Transform Menu :
c Cut out a rectangular region
[ Chop the image
h Flop the image horizontally
v Flip the image vertically
/ Rotate Right 90 degrees clockwise
\ Rotate Left 90 degrees anti-clockwise
r Roll the image
t Trim the image edges
The Enhance Menu :
Shift-H Vary the hue
Shift-L Vary the colour brightness
Shift-S Vary the colour-saturation
Shift-G Gamma-correct the image
Shift-C Sharpen the contrast
Shift-Z Dull the contrast
= Equalise
Shift-N Normalise
Shift-~ Negate the colours
. Convert to greyscale
Shift-# Set the maximum number of colours
The Effects Menu :
F2 Reduce the speckles
F3 Eliminate peak noise
F4 Add noise
F5 Sharpen
F7 Threshold the image
F8 Detect edges
F9 Emboss
F10 Displace pixels by a random amount
F11 Shade an image with a distant light-source
F13 Lighten or darken edges to create a 3D-effect
F14 Segment the image by colour
The F/X Menu :
Meta-S Swirl the pixels around the centre
Meta-I Implode the pixels around the centre
Meta-W Alter the image along a sine-wave
The Image Edit Menu :
Alt-A Annotate the image with text
Alt-D Draw on the image
Alt-P Edit a pixel-colour
Alt-M Edit the Matte information
Alt-V Composite the image with another
Alt-B Add a Border
Alt-F Add an ornamental Frame
Alt-Shift-! Add a comment
Ctrl-A Apply image-processing to a region of interest
The Miscellany Menu :
Shift-? Display information about the image
Shift-+ Map the zoom image window
Shift-P Preview an image enhancement or effect
F1 About display
1 to 9 Change the magnification
Arrow-keys Move by one pixel, if "map the magnify window" = 2
Alt-Arrow-keys Trim one pixel off any side of the image


See:   and: info ed.   In this list, the default addresses are shown in parentheses.
(These parentheses are not part of the address; they just show that the given addresses are the default.)
The line-number 0, meaning before the first line, is allowed for commands a. c. i, m and t.
ed supports Basic Regular Expressions, and has some neat short-cuts for Specifying Addresses.
An empty RegExp // repeats the previous search, and ? instead of / searches backwards.
ed  reads its commands from stdin, which makes it easy to use in shell-scripts.

(.)a Start Appending text after the addressed line, terminated by a line with just a full-stop .
(.,.)c Delete the line(s) and start appending text, terminated by a line with just a full-stop .
(.,.)d Delete the addressed line(s)
e [file] Deletes the entire current buffer, then reads in the named file.
E [file] Deletes without confirmation the current buffer, then reads in the named file.
f [file] Changes the currently remembered pathname to file
(1,$)g/RE/command list  For all lines in the address-range matching the RegExp, execute the command-list. See also v. The empty command means p.
(1,$)G/RE/  The Interactive Global command: it goes to each matching line and allows you to issue any command (except not a, c, i, g, G, v nor V). See also V.
h Writes a short Help message explaining the most recent ? notification.
H Writes a Help message for every ? notification. A second H toggles Help-Mode off again.
(.)i Start inserting text before the addressed line. The text is terminated by a full-stop .
(.,.+1)j Joins the given lines by removing newline-characters.
(.)kx Marks the line with a lowercase letter x. It can then be used as an address with 'x
(.,.)l Lists the given lines. Long lines are folded with a backslash.
(.,.)maddress Moves the given lines to after the line address
(.,.)n Writes the given lines with their line-Numbers. n can be appended to most other commands.
(.,.)p Writes the given lines.  p can be appended to most other commands.
P Causes ed to display a Prompt. A second P toggles Prompt-Mode off again.
q Quit ed, confirming with the user if the buffer is not yet saved.
Q Quit ed, without asking the user for confirmation.
($)r file Reads the named file in to after the given line-number. If file begins with ! the rest of the line is taken as a shell-command whose output is read.
(.,.)s/RE/string/flags Substitutes the RegExp with the string. The flags can be:   count: substitute only the count'th occurrence,  g: globally substitute all non-overlapping occurrences,  l: write in l-format the last substituted line,  n: write in n-format the last substituted line,  p: write in p-format the last substituted line.
(.,.)taddress Copies the given lines, and insert them after the line address.
u Undo the most recent command that modified anything.
(1,$)v/RE/command list  For all lines in the range that do not match the RegExp, execute the command-list. See also g. The empty command means p.
(1,$)V/RE/  Goes to each non-matching line and allows you to issue any command (except not a, c, i, g, G, v nor V). See also G.
(1,$)w [file] Writes the addressed lines to file, or to the current file if file is not given. If file begins with ! the rest of the line is taken as a shell-command whose stdin will be written to.
($)= Shows the given line-number. Eg: .= shows the current line-number.
! command Executes command as a shell-command, in which % means the current filename, and ! means the previous command.
(.+1) An address alone causes that line to be written. A newline alone means +1p


The default bindings are shown below. Any bindings in ~/.elinks/elinks.conf will override these.
There are also EDIT keys and MENU keys; see man elinkskeys

Space Move downwards by a page (move-page-down)
# Search link text by typing ahead (search-typeahead)
% Toggle usage of document specific colors (toggle-document-colors)
* Toggle displaying of links to images (toggle-display-images)
, Open a Lua console (lua-console)
. Toggle displaying of links numbers (toggle-numbered-links)
/ Search for a text pattern (search)
: Enter ex-mode (command line) (exmode)
< Previous tab (tab-prev)
Alt-< Move the current tab to the left (tab-move-left)
= Show information about the current page (document-info)
> Next tab (tab-next)
Alt-> Move the current tab to the right (tab-move-right)
? Search backwards for a text pattern (search-back)
A Add a new bookmark using current link (add-bookmark-link)
Ctrl-A Move to the start of the document (move-document-start)
Ctrl-B Move upwards by a page (move-page-up)
C Open cache manager (cache-manager)
D Open download manager (download-manager)
E Open "Go to URL" dialog box containing the current link URL (goto-url-current-link)
Ctrl-E Move to the end of the document (move-document-end)
F Open form history manager (formhist-manager)
Ctrl-F Move downwards by a page (move-page-down)
G Open "Go to URL" dialog box containing the current URL (goto-url-current)
H Go to the homepage (goto-url-home)
K Open cookie manager (cookie-manager)
Ctrl-K Reload cookies file (cookies-load)
L Open the link context menu (link-menu)
Ctrl-L Redraw the terminal (redraw)
N Find the previous occurrence of the current search text (find-next-back)
Ctrl-N Scroll down (scroll-down)
Ctrl-P Scroll up (scroll-up)
Q Quit without confirmation (really-quit)
Ctrl-R Reload the current page (reload)
T Open the current link in a new tab in the background (open-link-in-new-tab-in-background)
W Toggle wrapping of text (toggle-wrap-text)
[ Scroll left (scroll-left)
' Go at a specified mark (mark-goto)
\ Toggle rendering page as HTML or plain text (toggle-html-plain)
] Scroll right (scroll-right)
a Add a new bookmark (add-bookmark)
b Move upwards by a page (move-page-up)
c Close tab (tab-close)
d Download the current link (link-download)
e Open the tab menu (tab-menu)
f Maximize the current frame (frame-maximize)
g Open "Go to URL" dialog box (goto-url)
h Open history manager (history-manager)
k Open keybinding manager (keybinding-manager)
l Jump to link (jump-to-link)
m Set a mark (mark-set)
n Find the next occurrence of the current search text (find-next)
o Open options manager (options-manager)
q Open a quit confirmation dialog box (quit)
r Attempt to resume download of the current link (link-download-resume)
s Open bookmark manager (bookmark-manager)
t Open a new tab (open-new-tab)
u Go forward in history (history-move-forward)
v View the current image (view-image)
x Follow the current link, forcing reload of the target (link-follow-reload)
z Abort connection (abort-connection)
{ Scroll left (scroll-left)
| Show information about the current page protocol headers (header-info)
} Scroll right (scroll-right)
Backspace Backspace the last entered digit of the current prefix (backspace-prefix)
Delete Scroll down (scroll-down)
Down Move to the next link (move-link-next)
End Move to the end of the document (move-document-end)
Enter Follow the current link (link-follow)
Ctrl-Enter Follow the current link, forcing reload of the target (link-follow-reload)
Escape Activate the menu (menu)
F10 Open the File menu (file-menu)
F9 Activate the menu (menu)
Home Move to the start of the document (move-document-start)
Insert Scroll up (scroll-up)
Ctrl-Insert Copy text to clipboard (copy-clipboard)
Left Return to the previous document in history (history-move-back)
PageDown Move downwards by a page (move-page-down)
PageUp Move upwards by a page (move-page-up)
Right Follow the current link (link-follow)
Ctrl-Right Follow the current link, forcing reload of the target (link-follow-reload)
Tab Move to the next frame (frame-next)
Alt-Tab Move to the previous frame (frame-prev)
Shift-Tab Move to the previous frame (frame-prev)
Up Move to the previous link (move-link-prev)


d Toggle filename display
h Pause/Continue the slideshow   (see --slideshow-delay)
i Toggle info display   (see --info)
m Show menu. Arrow keys and return to select; escape to close
n, Space, Right Show next image
o Toggle pointer visibility
p, Backpace, Left  Show previous image
q Quit feh
r Reload current image (eg: for webcams)
s Save the current image as   feh_PID_ID_FILENAME
v Toggle fullscreen
x Close current window
z Jump to a random position in the current filelist
< , > Rotate image 90 degrees counterclockwise or clockwise
_   (underscore) Vertical flip
|   (bar, or pipe) Horizontal flip
Home Show first image
End Show last image
Page Up Go forward ~5% of the filelist
Page Down Go backward ~5% of the filelist
+ Increase reload delay by 1 second
- Decease reload delay by 1 second
Delete Remove the current file from the filelist
Ctrl-Delete Remove the current file from the filelist and delete it.
Ctrl-Left Scroll to the left
Ctrl-Right Scroll to the right
Ctrl-Up Scroll up
Ctrl-Down Scroll down


If none of these keystrokes work, you may need to enable them with something like:
  Menu > General > Browsing > Always use the cursor keys to navigate within pages
Alt-Left or Ctrl-[ Back
Alt-Right or Ctrl-] Forward
Alt-Home Home
Ctrl-o Open file
Ctrl-r Reload
Ctrl-Shift-r Reload cache
Esc Stop
End Go to bottom of page
Home Go to top of page
Ctrl-p Print
Ctrl-s Save
Ctrl-+ Zoom in
Ctrl-- Zoom out
Ctrl-0 Zoom reset
Ctrl-f Find
Ctrl-g Find next
Ctrl-Shift-g Find previous
Ctrl-w Close tab
Ctrl-PageUp Move one tab to the left
Ctrl-PageDown Move one tab to the right
Ctrl-Shift-P New private window
Ctrl-h History
Ctrl-Alt-Delete Clear recent history
Ctrl-u View page source
Ctrl-i Page information
F11 Toggle full screen
Ctrl-/ Toggle add-on bar
F7 Toggle caret browsing




a Toggle antialiasing on and off
o Open a new file
q Quit gv
r Toggle gv's resizing behaviour
i Respect/Ignore document structuring
w Watch file or Don't watch file
s Save the marked pages
Ctrl-s Save the current file
p Print the marked pages
Ctrl-p Print the current file
P Switches to presentation mode by forking a new GNU gv process
Ctrl-L or . Reload the current page
Ctrl-. Reopen the current file
m Mark the current page
n Unmark the current page
z append current coordinate to a file given by the 'GV.saveposFilename' resource
7 Orientation portrait
8 Orientation landscape
9 Orientation upside-down
0 Orientation seascape
+ Scale up
- Scale down
ArrowKeys Scroll in the direction of the Arrow
b/f, or PageUp/PageDown Jump -/+ one page
Insert/Delete Jump -/+ five pages
Home/End Jump to first/last page
Keypad 0-9 Highlight a page number
Keypad - Highlight previous page number
Keypad + Highlight next page number
Keypad Enter Jump to highlighted page
Ctrl-Enter or Shift-Enter Scroll columns up
Enter Scroll columns down


By default, Mod means Alt, but many people redefine it and use Mod4 (the key between Control and Alt) instead, which has fewer conflicts with application-defined shortcuts.
These default keybindings may be over-ridden by changes to your   ~/.i3/config   file.   See:

The word container almost means window,   and the word workspace means virtual desktop.
The <direction> keys are the Arrow-keys Left,Down,Up,Right,   or vi-like keys shifted one to the right j k l ;

Mod-Enter Open a new terminal emulator window
Mod-d Open dmenu to start any application by typing (part of) its name
Mod-h Split in horizontal orientation (one left and one right)
Mod-v Split in vertical orientation (one above the other)
Mod-Shift- j k or l Switch the orientation dynamically
Mod-<direction> Use Arrow-keys to change the focus
Mod-Shift-Left Move the window left
Mod-Shift-Right Move the window right
Mod-<number> Switch to workspace <number>
Mod-Shift-<number> Move window to workspace <number>
Mod-f Toggle fullscreen mode
Mod-s Enable stacking layout for the current container
Mod-e Enable default layout for the current container
Mod-w Enable tabbed layout for the current container
Mod-Shift-Space          Toggle tiling/floating for the current container
Mod-Mouse Drag floating windows to their wanted position
Mod-a Focus the parent container
Mod-d Focus the child container
Mod-Space Select the first tiling container if the current container is floating and vice-versa
Mod-Shift-q Kills the current window. This is equivalent to "clicking on the close button", sending a request to the application to close this window. If the application does not support that, the window will be killed, and it depends on the application what happens.
Mod-r Enter Resize Mode, in which you can use the direction-keys to resize the current window.   Then <Enter> or <Esc> returns to normal mode.   Resize-mode is indicated by a red rectangle bottom-left.
But usually it is easier to resize by dragging the window-border with the mouse.
Mod-Shift-r Restarts i3 in place. Your layout will be preserved
Mod-Shift-e Exits i3


Most commands can be preceeded by a number, shown here as N
NgGo to line N in the file (default line 1)
NGGo to line N in the file (default last line)


Up, Down scroll through hypertext links
RightArrow, Return follow a highlighted hypertext link
LeftArrow, u retreat from a link
= show information on the current document and link
Tab next link or text area, only stops on links
ctrl-P, ctrl-N go two lines up or down
PageUp, ctrl-B go one page up
PageDown, Space, ctrl-F go one page down
Home, End go to beginning or end of the document
{   } shift the screen left or right
/ enter a whereis search query
n repeat the search forwards
N repeat the search backwards
ctrl-R reload the document
ctrl-L refresh the screen
m return to your home page
V list links Visited during the current Lynx session
?, F1 online help and descriptions of keystrokes
K display a list of the current Keystrokes
Delete view history list
ctrl-K Invoke the Cookie Jar Page
ctrl-X Invoke the Cache Jar Page
q quit, asking for confirmation
Q quit immediately


t [message list] type message(s)
more [message list] read message(s), through the $PAGER
n goto and type next message
e [message list] edit message(s)
f [message list] give head lines of message(s)
d [message list] delete message(s)
s [message list] <file> append message(s) to file
u [message list] undelete message(s)
R [message list] reply to message sender(s)
r [message list] reply to message sender(s) and all recipients
p [message list] print message list
pre [message list] make messages go back to /var/mail
m <recipient list> mail to specific recipient(s)
q quit, saving unresolved messages in mbox
x quit, do not remove system mailbox
h print out active message headers
! shell escape
| [msglist] command pipe message(s) to shell command
pi [msglist] command pipe message(s) to shell command
cd [directory] chdir to directory or home if none given
fi <file> switch to file (%=system inbox, %user=user's system inbox)
+ searches in your folder directory for the file
set variable[=value] set Mail variable

A [message list] consists of integers, ranges of same, :status, /subject, or user names separated by spaces. If omitted, Mail uses the current message. The pipe command doesn't accept user names or subject message list, since that might conflict with the command string.

A <recipient list> consists of recipient addresses or aliases separated by spaces. Aliases are defined in .mailrc in your home directory.

<file> is a full or relative pathname, +folder, % (system inbox), %user (specified user's system inbox), # (previous file), & (mbox file), or an expression understood by ${SHELL:-/bin/sh} -c 'echo ...'


Subtitles :
v Toggle subtitle Visibility
j Cycle through the available subtitles
y and g Step forward/backward in the subtitle list
F Toggle displaying "Forced subtitles"
a Toggle subtitle Alignment: top/middle/bottom
x and z Adjust subtitle delay by +/- 0.1 seconds
r and t Move subtitles up/down
# Cycle through available audio tracks (DVD only)
Ctrl + and Ctrl - Adjust audio delay by +/- 0.1 seconds
/ and *, or 0 and 9 Decrease/increase volume
( and ) Adjust audio balance in favor of left/right channel
m Mute sound
Keyboard Control :
Shift Left and Shift Right Seek backward/forward exactly 1 second
Left and Right Seek backward/forward 5 (used to be 10) seconds
Shift Up and Shift Down Seek forward/backward exactly 5 seconds
Up and Down Seek forward/backward 1 minute
PageUp and PageDown This used to mean: Seek forward/backward 10 minutes
It now means: Seek the beginning of the current/next 'chapter'.
o Briefly show progress-bar, elapsed time and duration
O Toggle the display of elapsed time and duration.
[ and ] Decrease/increase current playback speed by 10%
{ and } Halve/double current playback speed
Backspace Reset playback speed to normal
< and > Go backward/forward in the playlist
Enter Go forward in the playlist, even over the end
Home and End next/previous playtree entry in the parent list
s (-vf screenshot only) Take a screenshot
S (-vf screenshot only) Start/stop taking screenshots
p and Spacebar Pause (pressing again unpauses)
. Pause and Step forward (any other key unpauses)
q or Esc Stop playing and quit


Entry-based menus :
j or Down move to the next entry
k or Up move to the previous entry
z or PageDown go to the next page
Z or PageUp go to the previous page
= or Home jump to the first entry
* or End jump to the last entry
q exit the current menu
? list all keybindings for the current menu
Page-based menus :
J or Return scroll down one line
Backspace scroll up one line
K or Space or PageDown move to the next page
- or PageUp move to the previous page
Home move to the top
End move to the bottom
Message index keys :
c change to a different mailbox
Esc c change to a folder in read-only mode
C copy the current message to another mailbox
Esc C decode a message and copy it to a folder
Esc s decode a message and save it to a folder
D delete messages matching a pattern
d delete the current message
F mark as important
l show messages matching a pattern
N mark message as new
o change the current sort method
O reverse sort the mailbox
q save changes and exit
s save-message
T tag messages matching a pattern
t toggle the tag on a message
Esc t toggle tag on entire message thread
U undelete messages matching a pattern
u undelete-message
v view-attachments
x abort changes and exit
Return display-message
Tab jump to the next new or unread message
@ show the author's full e-mail address
$ save changes to mailbox
/ search
Esc / search-reverse
^L clear and redraw the screen
^T untag messages matching a pattern

See: /usr/share/doc/mutt/html-org/gettingstarted.html


Alt-F4 Close the active window
Alt-Space Show the client menu for the active window
Alt-Tab Activate the last window that was in use on the desktop
Alt-Shift-Tab Cycle backward through the windows on the desktop, lowering the active window
Alt-Escape Cycle forwards through the windows on the desktop, lowering the active window
Windows-d Hide all windows to show the desktop
Windows-e Run the Konqueror file manager (an example of running a program with a key binding)
Alt-Scroll Change desktops forward and backward
Windows-F1 Jump to the first desktop
Windows-F2 Jump to the second desktop
Windows-F3 Jump to the third desktop
Windows-F4 Jump to the fourth desktop
Ctrl-Alt-Left Open the desktop switching dialog to go to the desktop to the left of the current one
Ctrl-Alt-Right Open the desktop switching dialog to go to the desktop to the right of the current one
Shift-Alt-Left Open the desktop switching dialog to go to the desktop to the left of the current one, bringing the active window with you
Shift-Alt-Right Open the desktop switching dialog to go to the desktop to the right of the current one, bringing the active window with you
Ctrl-Alt-Up Open the desktop switching dialog to go to the desktop above the current one (Only useful if you use a pager to set up a desktop layout with multiple rows)
Ctrl-Alt-Down Open the desktop switching dialog to go to the desktop below the current one (Only useful if you use a pager to set up a desktop layout with multiple rows)
Shift-Alt-Up Open the desktop switching dialog to go to the desktop above the current one, bringing the active window with you (Only useful if you use a pager to set up a desktop layout with multiple rows)
Shift-Alt-Down Open the desktop switching dialog to go to the desktop below the current one, bringing the active window with you (Only useful if you use a pager to set up a desktop layout with multiple rows)
Alt-Button1 Move the window under the mouse
Alt-Button3 Resize the window under the mouse, by moving the edge that the mouse is nearest to. Or use Alt-Button3 in the corner of a window to resize that corner.
Button2 Open a menu listing all windows on all desktops
Button3 Open a menu for launching applications (You should customize this menu to your liking)
Print Take a screendump with scrot into your $HOME


Ctrl-W machine has White
Ctrl-B machine has Black
F2 Flip board
Ctrl-A Analysis mode   (first you must choose an Engine with the menu)
Alt-Left Back
Alt-Right Forward
Alt-Home Start of game
Alt-End End of game
Ctrl-S Save game
Shift-Ctrl-S Save position
Ctrl-O Load game
Shift-Ctrl-O Load position
Ctrl-Q Quit


See :

Composer :
MacCommandKey-B Toggle Bold
MacCommandKey-I Toggle Italics
MacCommandKey-> Toggle Quote
Shift-Enter New line
Up / Down Navigate recent messages to edit
MacCommandKey-Home / MacCommandKey-End Jump to start/end of the composer
Ctrl-Alt-Up Move up in composer history
Ctrl-Alt-Down Move down in composer history
Esc Cancel replying to a message
Calls :
MacCommandKey-D Toggle microphone mute
MacCommandKey-E Toggle video on/off
Room List :
MacCommandKey-K Jump to room search
Up  /  Down Navigate up/down in the room list
Enter Select room from the room list
Left Collapse room list section
Right Expand room list section
Esc Clear room list filter field
Autocomplete :
Up  /  Down Move autocomplete selection up/down
Esc Cancel autocomplete
Navigation :
PageUp / PageDown Scroll up/down in the timeline
Shift-Alt-Up / Shift-Alt-Down Previous/next unread room or DM
Alt-Up  /  Alt-Down Previous/next room or DM
MacCommandKey-` Toggle the top left menu
Esc Close dialog or context menu
Enter Space Activate selected button
MacCommandKey-. Toggle right panel
MacCommandKey-/ Toggle this dialog
MacCommandKey-, Open user settings
MacCommandKey-[   /   MacCommandKey-] Previous/next recently-visited room or community


Here several common terms get specialised meanings: display, terminal, region, screen, focus, window
    Each display (a console or xterm) can be split into several regions
    The focus can then be switched from region to region.
    The region which currently has focus is called the screen.
    You can create up to ten windows, where each window runs a shell.
    Each region can display one of the windows.

You can then work within a window, including copy and paste, and there's some system stuff.
All the Ctrl-a lowercase-letter commands (except a, h and v) also work if Ctrl remains down when the letter is pressed.
See man screen and also man byobu.

Ctrl-a S(split) Split the current region horizontally into two new ones
Ctrl-a |(split -v) Split the current region vertically into two new ones
Ctrl-a tab(focus) Switch the input focus to the next region
Ctrl-a Q(only) Delete all regions but the current one
Ctrl-a X(remove) Kill the current region

Up to ten windows can be opened by Ctrl-a c   and each region can display a window.

Ctrl-a '(select) Prompt for a window name or number to switch to
Ctrl-a "(windowlist -b) Present a list of all windows for selection
Ctrl-a 0
Ctrl-a 9
Ctrl-a -
(select 0)
(select 9)
(select -)
Switch the screen (the currently-focussed region)
to window number 0-9, or to the blank window
Ctrl-a Ctrl-a(other) Toggle to the window displayed previously (the command char twice)
Ctrl-a A(title) Allow the user to enter a name for the current window
Ctrl-a c(screen) Create a new window with a shell, and switch to that window
Ctrl-a i(info) Show information about the current window
Ctrl-a k(kill) Destroy the current window
Ctrl-a n(next) Switch to the next window. (Ctrl-a Space also works)
Ctrl-a N(number) Show the number (and title) of the current window
Ctrl-a p(prev) Switch to the previous window
Ctrl-a w(windows) Show a list of windows

You then work within a window:

Ctrl-a a(meta) Send the command character (Ctrl-a) to window. See escape command
Ctrl-a b(break) Send a break to window
Ctrl-a B(pow_break) Reopen the terminal line and send a break
Ctrl-a C(clear) Clear the screen (the current region)
Ctrl-a d(detach) Detach screen from this terminal
Ctrl-a D(pow_detach) Detach and logout
Ctrl-a f(flow) Toggle flow on, off or auto
Ctrl-a F(fit) Resize the window to the current region size
Ctrl-a Ctrl-g(vbell) Toggle the visual-bell mode
Ctrl-a h(hardcopy) Write a hardcopy of the current window to the file "hardcopy.n"
Ctrl-a H(log) Begins/ends logging of the current window to the file "screenlog.n"
Ctrl-a l(redisplay) Fully refresh current window
Ctrl-a L(login) Toggle this windows login slot. (Only if screen is configured to update utmp)
Ctrl-a m(lastmsg) Repeat the last message displayed in the message line
Ctrl-a M(monitor) Toggle monitoring of the current window (Ctrl-a Backspace and Ctrl-a h also work)
Ctrl-a q(xon) Send a control-q to the current window
Ctrl-a r(wrap) Toggle the current window's line-wrap setting (turn automatic margins on/off)
Ctrl-a s(xoff) Send a control-s to the current window
Ctrl-a Ctrl-v(digraph) Enter a digraph
Ctrl-a _(silence) Start/stop monitoring the current window for inactivity

You can do copy-and-paste :

Ctrl-a [(copy) Enter copy/scrollback mode, which allows you to copy text from the current window and its history into the paste buffer.   It uses vi-like keybindings, including numbers like 5j or 3e
h, j, k, l move the cursor line by line or column by column
0 move to the leftmost column
^ and $ move to the first or last non-whitespace on the line
H, M and L move to the start of the top, center or bottom line of the window
+ and - positions one line up and down
G moves to the specified absolute line (default: end of buffer)
| moves to the specified absolute column
w, b, e move the cursor word by word
B, E move the cursor WORD by WORD (as in vi)
Ctrl-u and Ctrl-d scroll the display up/down by the specified amount of lines while preserving the cursor position (default: half a screen)
Ctrl-b and Ctrl-f scroll the display up/down a full screen
g moves to the beginning of the buffer
% jumps to the specified percentage of the buffer
The copy range is set by setting two marks; the marked text will be highlighted.
Press Space to set the first and second mark respectively
Y and y used to mark one whole line, or from start of line
W marks exactly one word
Ctrl-a ](paste) Write the contents of the paste buffer to the stdin queue of the current window
Ctrl-a {(history) Copy a previous command-line
Ctrl-a }(history) Paste that previous command-line
Ctrl-a >(writebuf) Write paste buffer to a file
Ctrl-a <(readbuf) Reads the screen-exchange file into the paste buffer
Ctrl-a =(removebuf) Removes the file used by Ctrl-a > and Ctrl-a <

And some system-wide stuff :

Ctrl-a t(time) Show system information
Ctrl-a v(version) Display the version and compilation date
Ctrl-a W(width) Toggle 80/132 columns
Ctrl-a x(lockscreen) Lock this terminal
Ctrl-a z(suspend) Suspend screen (your system must support BSD-style job-control)
Ctrl-a Z(reset) Reset the virtual terminal to its "power-on" values
Ctrl-a .(dumptermcap) Write out a ".termcap" file
Ctrl-a ?(help) Show key bindings
Ctrl-a \(quit) Kill all windows and terminate screen
Ctrl-a :(colon) (or Ctrl-a Esc or Ctrl-a Ctrl-[)   Enter command mode, see man screen  eg: ^a:resize +4
Ctrl-a ,(license) Shows where screen comes from, where it went to and why you can use it
Ctrl-a *(displays) Show a listing of all currently attached displays

vim The vim cheat-sheet

Moving around . . .
fX seek character X forward in the current line
FX seek character X backward in the current line
; repeat previous f or F seek
, repeat previous f or F seek in the other direction
Windows . . .
Ctrl-w s:[N]sp Split horizontally, giving two viewports in the same file (new window N high)
:[N]sp filename Split window in two horizontally, and load a different file
Ctrl-w v:[N]va Split vertically, giving two viewports in the same file (new window N wide)
:[N]va filename Split current window vertically, and load a different file
Ctrl-w n:[N]new filename Create a new window and start editing a file in it
:vnew filename Like :new, but split vertically
Ctrl-w o:on Make the current window the only one; all others are written and closed
Ctrl-w j Move to the window below the current one
Ctrl-w k Move to the window above the current one
Ctrl-w h Move to the window left of the current one
Ctrl-w l Move to the window right of the current one
Ctrl-w + Increase current window size by 1
Ctrl-w - Decrease current window size by 1
Folding . . .
V Highlight
zfza Fold or unfold the highlighted lines
zR Unfold all
zf#jzf#k Fold down or up # lines
zf}zf{ Fold a paragraph down or up

vlc     See also cvlc

Ctrl-OOpen a single file
Ctrl-Shift-OOpen multiple files
Ctrl-FOpen folder
Ctrl-DOpen disk
Ctrl-NOpen network stream
Ctrl-COpen capture device
Ctrl-VOpen location copied in the clipboard
Ctrl-RConvert and save file
Ctrl-SStream your media locally or on the internet
Ctrl-Q or Alt-F4 or Alt-QQuit
Ctrl-EOpen the adjustment and effects menu
Ctrl-Shift-WVLM Configuration
Ctrl-MOpen the message screen
Ctrl-POpen the preferences menu
SpacePlay and Pause a file
NNext Track
PPrevious Track
f or F11 or Mouse Double ClickFull screen mode on and off
Ctrl-HSwitch minimal interface on and off
tShow current and remaining time information
Ctrl-TGo to a specific time of a playing media
PGo and play from the start of a file
SStop movie
EscFull screen exit
ESwitch to next frame
LLoop off, one or all
RRandom on and off
GDecrease subtitle delay
HIncrease subtitle delay
VCycle through subtitles
[Decrease playing speed
]Increase playing speed
=Normal playing speed
Shift-Right3 seconds forward
Shift-Left3 seconds backward
Alt-Right10 seconds forward
Alt-Left10 seconds backward
Ctrl-Right1 minute forward
Ctrl-Left1 minute backward
ACycle aspect ratio
CCycle through crop display area
ZCycle through zoom mode
DDeinterlace On and Off
oSwitch to original size of the video
WWallpaper mode on (with DirectX output)
Ctrl-Up or Mouse Scroll UpVolume Up
Ctrl-Down or Mouse Scroll DownVolume Down
JDecrease audio delay
KIncrease audio delay
BCycle through available audio tracks
MMute sound on and off
Shift-ACycle through audio devices
Ctrl-IView and edit media information like title, artist, album
Ctrl-JView codec information like your media dimensions, audio and video codecs
Ctrl-LSwitch to playlist or back to media
Ctrl-YSave current playlist to a file
Ctrl-BCreate, delete and clear bookmarks menu.
Shift-BNext title
Shift-OPrevious title
Shift-NNext chapter
Shift-PPrevious chapter
Shift-MDisk Menu
Shift-HHistory forward
Shift-GHistory back
Shift-RStart and stop recording
Shift-STake snapshot
Alt-CCrop from bottom
Alt-Shift-CUncrop from bottom
Alt-DCrop from left
Alt-Shift-DUncrop from left
Alt-FCrop from right
Alt-Shift-FUncrop from right
Alt-RCrop from top
Alt-Shift-RUncrop from top
Alt-MOpen media menu
Alt-LOpen playback menu
Alt-AOpen audio menu
Alt-VOpen video menu
Alt-SOpen subtitle menu
Alt-OOpen tools menu
Alt-IOpen view menu
Alt-HOpen help menu


Ctrl-N New Game
Alt-v New Variant (eg: chess960...)
Ctrl-o Load Game from a PGN file
Ctrl-O Load Position from a FEN file
PageDown Next Position
PageUp Previous Position
Ctrl-s Save Game (appending it to a PGN file)
Ctrl-S Save Position (in a FEN file)
Ctrl-q Exit from xboard
Ctrl-e Edit Game
Ctrl-E Edit Position
Home Revert to the most recently shelved variation
End Truncate Game (discards all moves beyond current position)
Alt-LeftArrow Backward
Alt-RightArrow Forward
Alt-Home Back to Start
Alt-End Forward to End
F2 Flip View
Alt-h Show (or Hide) Move History
Alt-e Show (or Hide) Evaluation Graph
Ctrl-w Machine plays White
Ctrl-b Machine plays Black
Ctrl-t Two Machines play each other
Ctrl-a Analysis Mode
Ctrl-g Analyse Game
Pause Pause
F1 Manual Page of xboard


Subtitles :
. (period)   and   , (comma) Next/Previous subtitle channel
f fullscreen mode
F xinerama fullscreen mode,
G Hide all GUI windows (except the video window)
w hide video output window
Audio :
+ and - Next/Previous audio channel
Ctrl-m Mute/Unmute audio
V and v Increment and decrement audio volume
m press if video lags behind audio
n press if video runs ahead of audio
Home reset audio/video synchronisation
Keyboard Control :
Left and Right Seek backward/forward 1 minute
Ctrl-0, Ctrl-1, Ctrl-2, ... Ctrl-9 Seek to 0%, 10%, 20%, ... 90%
68/ Seek to 68%
Up and Down Increment or Decrement playback speed (but mutes the audio)
Ctrl-i Display stream information using OSD
S Stop playback
Spacebar Pause (pressing again unpauses)
q Stop playing and quit
See also   ~/.xine/keymap


o Open a new PDF file via a file requester
r Reload the current PDF file. Note that xpdf will reload the file automatically (on a page change or redraw) if it has changed since it was last loaded
Ctrl-L Redraw the current page
Ctrl-W Close the current window
f or Ctrl-F Find a text string
Ctrl-G Find next occurrence
Ctrl-P Print
n Move to the next page. Scrolls to the top of the page, unless scroll lock is turned on
p Move to the previous page. Scrolls to the top of the page, unless scroll lock is turned on
Spacebar or PageDown Scroll down on the current page; if already at bottom, move to next page
Backspace or PageUp Scroll up on the current page; if already at top, move to previous page
v Move forward along the history path
b Move backward along the history path
Home Scroll to top of current page
End Scroll to bottom of current page
Ctrl-Home Scroll to first page of document
Ctrl-End Scroll to last page of document
ArrowKeys Scroll the current page
g Activate the page number text field ("goto page")
O Set the zoom factor to 125% (ready for increment and decrement)
+ Zoom in (increment the zoom factor by 1)
- Zoom out (decrement the zoom factor by 1)
z Set the zoom factor to 'page' (fit page to window)
w Set the zoom factor to 'width' (fit page width to window)
h Set the zoom factor to 'height' (fit page height to window)
Alt-F Toggle full-screen mode
q Quit xpdf


Ctrl-Button3 Font-size menu
Shift-KeyPadPlus Larger font
Shift-KeyPadMinus Smaller font
Shift-PageUp Scroll back
Shift-PageDown Scroll forward
Alt-Return Toggle fullscreen mode

See also   /etc/X11/app-defaults/XTerm


I personally suggest sticking to Review Mode, and configuring Ctrl-Y as your Toggle review mode key.   This works well on small keyboards, and avoids conflict with applications (such as screen) that use the Alt and Ctrl keys.
In ~/.yasr.conf that would be:   0x19:toggle review mode

Review Mode :   
Space  Say review cursor position
^  Move to first character on the line, and say word
$  Move to last character on the line, and say word
b  Say previous character
c  Say this character
d  Say next character
e  Read from cursor to bottom of screen
f  Search for text on the screen
<  Search from cursor to top of screen, using the previously-entered search string
>  Search from cursor to bottom of screen, using the previously-entered search string
l  Say current line
t  Read from top to cursor
w  Read entire screen
z  Move to beginning of previous word and say it
x  Move to beginning of next word and say it
UpArrow  Move up a line and read the line
DownArrow  Move down a line and read the line
LeftArrow  Move back one character and say it
RightArrow  Move ahead one character and say it
(  Go to previous paragraph
)  Go to next paragraph
Alt-i  Reinitialize the synthesizer
` (backquote)  Read the ASCII value of the current character
Ctrl-y  Truncate speech, and toggle yasr review mode


Ctrl-c edit-copy
Ctrl-x edit-cut
Ctrl-Returnedit-insert-newline (bug)
Alt-Returnmacro-play (bug)
Alt-]move-next-paragraph (bug)
Alt-[move-previous-paragraph (bug)

Before nov2012 the keybindings were different


Zile is a lightweight Emacs clone that provides a subset of the functionality, for basic editing.   It does not support utf8 characters.   See also: EmacsNewbieKeyReference,  or emacspeak,  or jed,  or alias emacs='emacs -nw'

File-Menu operations:
Ctrl-x Ctrl-fFind a file (and give it a new buffer)
Ctrl-x Ctrl-sSave the file
Ctrl-x iInsert a file
Ctrl-x Ctrl-cQuit Zile
Ctrl-x Ctrl-bList buffers (Ctrl-x 1 to get rid of the list)
Ctrl-x bSwitch to a buffer
Ctrl-x sSave some buffers
Ctrl-gQuit a partially-entered command
Ctrl-/Undo (or Ctrl-_)
You can give a command a repeat count by typing Ctrl-u and then the digits, before you type the command...
Moving around:
Ctrl-vMove forward one screenful
Esc vMove backward one screenful
Ctrl-lRedisplay, moving the text round the cursor to the center of the screen.
Ctrl-l Ctrl-lRedisplay, moving the text round the cursor to the top of the screen.
Ctrl-fMove forward a character
Ctrl-bMove backward a character
Esc fMove forward a word
Esc bMove backward a word
Ctrl-aMove to beginning of line
Ctrl-eMove to end of line
Ctrl-nMove to next line
Ctrl-pMove to previous line
Esc g gGo to a line
Ctrl-x Ctrl-xExchange Cursor and Mark
Esc <Move to the top of the buffer
Esc >Move to the end of the buffer
BackspaceDelete the character before the cursor
Ctrl-dDelete the next character after the cursor
Killing and Yanking:
Esc BackspaceKill the word before the cursor (can be yanked)
Esc dKill the next word after the cursor
Ctrl-kKill from the cursor to end of line
Esc kKill to the end of the current sentence
Ctrl-wKill the whole region
Ctrl-yYank the killed text back
Shell Commands:
Ctrl-u Esc !Insert command output at current point
Ctrl-SpaceSelect a region; Set a mark, then move...
Ctrl-u Esc |Pipe the region through a command
Multiple Windows:
Ctrl-x 2Split the screen into two windows
Ctrl-x oMove the cursor into the other window
Ctrl-x 1Delete all but the one current window
Ctrl-h k Ctrl-pHelp on the Ctrl-p command (Ctrl-x 1 to remove the help window)